Tuesday, May 26, 2020

From the beginning of the Civil War all the way up to the...

From the beginning of the Civil War all the way up to the end of Reconstruction, the United States endured a similar type of revolution than it had dealt with in the previous years. In this time, many social and constitutional advancements brought about great change and discord in the country. However, some of these constitutional developments ended up causing conflict such as the civil rights bills and Emancipation Proclamation, in addition to the social developments such as the Black Codes, Ku Klux Klan, and the Freedman’s Bureau. All together, these important events helped put the country into a revolution. The United States was divided into two divergent sides fighting for control even before 1860. These conflicts never ended up†¦show more content†¦C). Gideon Welles also wrote that the central government did not have the power to control whether or not freedmen could vote. Some southern states benefited by putting major laws like the Literacy Test, Poll Tax, and the Grandfather in place to restrict the right of freedmen to vote in their state. Few freedmen were able to afford the Poll Tax and many freedmen could not read because they were not restricted by their owners before abolition of slavery. Slaves were considered property and not citizens due to the Dred Scott decision. It was highly unlikely that their grandfathers had voted due to this decision, thus restricting freedmen’s right to vote even more. On the contrary, there were efforts to support the freedmen that were being discriminated. The Freedmen’s Bureau helped freedmen learn to read and write, in addition to finding employment after being freed. Albeit, many freedmen after the Civil War ended up to the plantations and worked as sharecroppers and tenant farmers (Doc. D). On Harper’s weekly it depicts a freedman casting a ballot and was named the â€Å"First Vote†. The Civil Right Act of 1866 attempted to fight the limitations that were placed on free dmen in the South. The Federal government then had the right to protect freedmen’s rights in the South from being disobeyed. The United States changed with the abolition of slavery and the start ofShow MoreRelatedThe End Of The 20th Century1544 Words   |  7 PagesHistory since the end of the Civil War to the end of the 20th century has changed drastically when you asses America on an economic, social, and political level. The changes between the end of the 19th century and the end of the 20th century are the cause in the way America has been shaped and how American’s think. In fact, industrialization and urbanization, equal rights for all citizens, and two world wars played a major role in the shape of America to our understanding. Although, there are numerousRead MoreReconstruction Of The Civil War1054 Words   |  5 Pages As the civil war was ending many people could see that the odds of the north winning increased dramatically however many people can argue this idea based on the several events that took place during the second phase of the civil war. Carl Schurz concluded, â€Å"The Civil War was a revolution, but half accomplished.†(Roark et al 434) Reconstruction started before the civil war ended until 1877, when people of the United States tried figuring out how to put the country back together. Many people hadRead MoreThe Beginning Of The Civil War1289 Words   |  6 PagesRevised At the beginning of the Civil War the reasoning was nothing but clear. It can’t be ignored that the Civil War was in fact about slavery and that slavery was an issue â€Å"resolved† by the Civil War. Yes the war was initially about race and how the country â€Å"needed† to free slaves, David W. Blight states it, â€Å"The emancipationist vision, embodied in African Americans’ complex remembrance of their own freedom, their politics of radical Reconstruction, and in conceptions of the war as the reinventionRead MoreReconstruction Failure Essay1600 Words   |  7 PagesThe Reconstruction period is the name given to the time in between 1863 and 1877. This period’s main goal was to reunite the United States of America after the most substantial event of disunity in American existence: The Civil War. Reconstruction consisted of many proposed plans and attempts to reinstate the Southern states back into the union. In the early stages, there was some pro mise as to what reconstruction had the ability to accomplish, because some political groups had the right ideas aboutRead MoreThe Jim-Crow Era: An Omitted Era in American History1524 Words   |  7 Pagessociety like the United States, looking to the past is common, to learn from our mistakes but some undeniable issues of the past repeat and are omitted from our society because of their unpleasant nature, a great example of this is the Jim-Crow Era. In this paper, I will be discussing the main events of the Jim-Crow era, its initiation, the new style of slavery in the south, and the way it re-shaped the lives of African Americans all across the country, its re-enforcement in the beginning of the twentiethRead MoreAbraham Lincoln And Its Impact On The United States1470 Words   |  6 PagesLincoln made a lasting impact on the United States because he was able to maintain the continuation of the United States. He was a very open minded person and was able to understand both aspects of the War. As a president and Commander in Chief of the United States Army, he was calm under pressure and very generous. He had a lasting impression on the South with his Ten Percent plan and was viewed as a hero for African Americans and rightfully so. Freeing them from chains in the South and giving themRead MoreReconstruction Of The United States1181 Words   |  5 PagesBy 1877, reconstruction had successfully restored the United States as a unified nation. Each Confederate state had thoroughly drafted state constitutions, pledged their loyalty to the United States government, and accepted the newly Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments. However, reconstruction inevitably failed the South. The legislation of Radical Republicans failed to give protection to freed slaves from further persecution of whites; and it also failed to fundamentally refabricateRead MoreThe Surrender Of The Confederate Army Brought An End To1196 Words   |  5 PagesThe surrender of the conf ederate army brought an end to the civil war and the beginning of reconstruction. The country was divided with the newly freed slaves and the rebellious white southerners all attempting to be reintegrated back into the Union. The man America leaned on to help them was the same man who led the Union through the civil war, Abraham Lincoln. Although, on April 15, 1865, Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth. While fleeing the seen Booth can be heard shouting â€Å"the southRead MoreReconstruction Of The Civil War951 Words   |  4 PagesHistory 11 7 May 2015 Reconstruction In the beginning of 1865, the Civil War came to a close, abandoning over 620,000 dead and a destructive path of devastating all over the south. The North now was confronted with the task of reconstructing the destroyed and aggrieved Confederate states. On April 11, two days after Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s submission, President Abraham Lincoln delivered his last public address, during which he designated a merciful Reconstruction plans and encouraged sympathyRead More Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois Common Goal of Equality for African Americans1542 Words   |  7 PagesAfrican Americans The United States societal system during the 19th century was saturated with a legacy of discrimination based upon race. Cultivating a humanitarian approach, progressive intellectuals ushered in an era of societal reconstruction with the intention to establish primary equalities on the pervasive argument of human race. The experiment poised the United States for rebellion and lasting ramifications. The instantaneous repercussions for both races evolving from the emancipation of African-Americans

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

My Experience In My Life - 942 Words

Throughout a person’s life, there can be many things, such as friends and family, education, or sports, that help them develop skills to turn them into the person they are today. Without these different skills, it can possibly lead to a lower standard of living, which is not what we strive for. The thing that helped me develop my unique skill set that I can use through the rest of my life, which is also my cultural artifact, is a football. Football has taught many different things that I am able to use during the rest of my college experience, and after that during my professional career. The different skills football has taught me is the value of friendship, self-motivation, and time management skills. Football has always been big in my†¦show more content†¦Throughout my football career, I was never the strongest, or even the fastest kid on the team. I only weighed 140 pounds, which was light for my position as a safety. My sophomore year, I played on the JV team, so playing wasn’t such a big deal to people as most students went to the varsity games. I still worked hard on improving all of my fundamentals to try and get ready for my junior and senior year, but I wasn’t fully dedicated. During my junior year, there was no chance I could start over my older teammates, but I put in extra hours and effort to work my way up to start my senior year. After the season ended, I pushed myself harder and kept reminding myself that the harder I work, the better chance I have to start my senior year. From November until August, I worked as hard as I could to try and earn a starting spot. I would spend extra hours of film on upcoming teams, or an extra rep in the weight room every time. I eventually became 155 pounds, with very limited body fat and mostly muscle, and was also named the starter for my team. High school wasn’t much of a challenge for me, as it was mainly keeping up with homework and studying for exams. My grades would be f ine; however, once I played a sport, or even two sports my sophomore year, time management was a skill I had to master. According to my mom, she said â€Å"football taught you time management skills, which showed you how to balance homework, work, life, and football† (Sexton, personalShow MoreRelatedMy Experience In My Life742 Words   |  3 Pagesone has a perfect life or even a perfect family. At times I have experienced what losing someone or something that meant so much to me. I always wondered to myself about why these situations happen to me, which also led me to put myself in a depression stage. My father was diagnosed with liver cancer and infection in his stomach area in March 2015. As he was in and out of the hospital. First, Growing up I never had a good life but I was lucky to have both of my parents in my life. It was a bond withRead MoreMy Experience In My Life1013 Words   |  5 Pages At this point in my life , if i review my previous experiences i would say that i am fairly pleased. Ive been able to gain numerous life and academic skills through hard work and determination. Though many of my experiences havent been pleasant ,in a way it has helped me grow and build my character as a person. As individuals we all go through many harsh obstacles , obstacles we sometimes think we will never overcome . but eventually we do . right ? think about it evenRead MoreMy Experience With My Life1356 Words   |  6 Pagesdo not have an abundant number of passions myself. In fact, as I think about it there are really only two subjects of interest that I feel rise to the level of passion for me; my God and sports. These two areas have been integral parts of my life for as long as I can remember. I grew up in the church and much of my young life was spent either there or on a sports field of some sort. These two institutions, I feel have shaped me into the adult that I have become and the career I feel myself called toRead MoreMy Experience On My Life1202 Words   |  5 PagesAll I could think of sitting at my desk at work was about the conversation me and my husband had the night before. I sat there staring at my computer screen wondering if it was the right thing to do, or was I just wasting my time on a hope long forgotten. The hours slowly ticked by, and everything I was working on with my customers and their loans were a blur. I couldn’t get that thought out of my head. It was eating away at me. This is something that I have wanted for a long time. I put it on holdRead MoreMy Experience Of My Life703 Words   |  3 PagesFor the majority of my life, I had been shy, even though it didn’t seem like it most of the time, I was scared to death when I met new people. I know that it sounds extremely trivial, but I feel that when you first meet someone, you’re ultimately giving them their first impression of yourself and that is a lot of pressure. It seemed almost certain that I would lead a life of being a social wallflower until March 2017, more specifically, March 28th, 2017. This day was and still is important to meRead MoreMy Experience In My Life905 Words   |  4 Pagesmajority of my life I have belonged in the littl e world, stretching from Chicago to Cleveland and South Bend to Nashville. The boundaries of my known world have always felt like a limiting factor in my life. While my friends ventured to far away lands every year, I would spend the night at my grandparents house or we would make a day-trip to a city. With spring break approaching my family and I were going to change that, we were going to South Carolina. One dreary cold Indiana morning my family andRead MoreMy Personal Experience : My Experience In My Life1003 Words   |  5 Pagesdifficult to write about my life—not because I do not know what to say, but because I am often fearful of sharing my experiences and having them impact how people view me. My identity and upbringing are not necessarily unique, but I have been in situations that society tends to be uncomfortable with. Repeated sexual assaults, psychological abuse, neglect, and financial hardships are factors in my life that I tried to forget when I started college. Now that I am at the end of my undergraduate educationRead MoreMy Writing Experience : My Experience In My Life921 Words   |  4 PagesAs a Human, throughout life there are many skills that are critical to acquire, during childhood and as you become older. One of the most important and useful skill you will need is writing. From first, learning to write words and sentences, to more advanced writing like essays. Everyone learns to write a little differently, some ways are learning from your parents or learning words and letters in kindergarten. As you get further down the path of life you develop higher skills of writing. As peopleRead MoreMy Experience On My Life953 Words   |  4 PagesThe wind was slicing through my hair as my sweat was dripping off my metallic purple frames. I placed each foot on each of the pedals and took off. My whole world was filled with the rattling sounds coming from the dreaded training wheels. Everything would always come to a stop whenever I would hit each bump. â€Å"I need to get these thing off!† I thought constantly. The training wheels were such a nuisance because they gave me a wobble that kept me off balance, and they provided no extra speed. ThereRead MoreMy Experience In My Life718 Words   |  3 PagesS most of my life. When I came to the United States I was two years old. I have gone back to Pakistan only a few times, but my most r ecent visit was in 2012 when I had just finished 8th grade. One of the fun parts was traveling, because it is always fun to go to different airports and cities, but once you were inside of the plane there wasn’t much to do on the long flights. The flight was 12 hours long so I ended up sleeping a lot to make time go by. It was also pretty hard leaving my parents because

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Economic Duress free essay sample

A contract is voidable or vitiate under several situations, economic duress is one of the examples. Economic duress is a vitiating factor in a contract as it is a common law defense. When there happens to be an economic duress in a contract, the party can make the contract voidable if the requirements are fulfilled. One needs to be noted that the contract is only voidable instead of being voided completely. A contract has no legal force or effect at all if it is being voided. However, a contract that is voidable simply means that the contract is still legally binding until avoided by the party. The affected party may cancel the contract and claim for remedies. Kerr J proposed that the contract can be set aside when there is economic duress exerting on one of the parties. Occidental Worldwide Investment Corporation v Skibs A/S Avanti, The Sibeon and The Sibotre [1976] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 293 Economic duress is a threat to a person’s financial or business interests. (Contract Law, 10th edn, Jill Poole pg564). The threat must be directed to the person’s financial standing but not to the person himself or his property. (Contract Law in Perspective, John Tillotson pg165). There is an economic duress exerted on a party when one party threatens to breach the contract unless the other party who is being threatened complies or renegotiates with him/her. Normally, the party who is being threatened would rather to comply or renegotiate with the other party, as it would be more practical to do so. This is because the breaching of the contract might bring more disadvantages than to comply with it despite that the party is being threatened. For example, A and B entered into a contract that A would provide something to B and B would pay for it. A then threatened to breach the contract if B did not want to pay more for the stuffs. B is in an urge to get the stuffs or else he will breach another contract with a third party and A is the only company that provides such things. B has no choice but to pay more to A. A has exerted economic duress on B as B is being forced to enter into a new contract to pay more to A. B has no other choice but to agree with it because A is the only supplier he could find. In this case, it is more practical to comply with A because the breaching of the contract will result in disastrous consequences to B. However, the issue here is does the duress negate the consent of the party? This issue will be discussed in detailed later. Development of Economic Duress Formerly, with the absence of the doctrine of economic duress, the example mentioned above will be dealt in the light of the doctrine of consideration. Generally, there was no contract if the parties did not provide any considerations. A did not provide any consideration to B in order for B to pay A more. Hence, the promise is not legally binding and B is not contractually obliged to pay A the extra amount of money. However, Williams v Roffey Bros amp; Nicholls (Contractors) Ltd [1991] 1 QB 1 has changed the position of law regarding to the doctrine of consideration. The court held that where a party agrees to pay extra in order for the other to perform his existing contractual duty, the promise is binding if the promisor obtained practical benefit or avoided a disadvantage even though there was a lack of consideration. In this case, B has to pay the extra money as he has avoided a disadvantage of breaching the contract with a third party. This leads to a question of fairness. Is it equitable for B to pay more if he is being threatened or forced by A? Obviously, A is taking advantage of B. The doctrine of economic duress is being established to overcome the problems. Furthermore, before the doctrine of economic duress was established, duress was confined to duress to person G H Treitel, The Law of Contract (11th ed 2003), p 408 and duress to goods only. The law has expanded the concept of duress to economic duress. In the law today, a threat to the financial standing of the party can claim under economic duress. It is inevitable to deny that all contracts are entered with some forms of pressures. Pressure is a natural part of the bargaining process. See discussion by Tipping J in Attorney-General for England and Wales v R [2002] 2 NZLR 91, para 62. However, with the changing of the society, the courts feel that there is a need to expand the doctrine to protect the victim who has a lower bargaining power. It is clearly unfair for one party to be forced to enter into a contract by an illegitimate pressure. The doctrine of economic duress was first recognized in the case of The Sibeon and The Sibotre. Occidental Worldwide Investment Corporation v Skibs [1976] 1 Lloyds Rep 293 However, the doctrine of economic duress is still developing through case laws as this doctrine has been established for over two decades only. Hence, there are some problems in this doctrine as it is still developing. What amounts to Economic Duress? Pao On v Lau Yiu Long [1980] AC 614 is the leading case in the doctrine of economic duress. This case has technically established the doctrine of economic duress. Lord Scarman in this case has stated the requirements that amounts to economic duress. Firstly, it must be proven that there is an illegitimate pressure exerted by the party to the victim. Secondly, it is the illegitimate pressure that causes the victim to enter into the contract. Lastly, the victim has no practical choice other than agree with it. This case was then being affirmed in the case of DSND Subsea Ltd v Petroleum Geo Services ASA [2000] BLR 530. In order to succeed in the claim of economic duress, one must satisfied the three conditions as mentioned. Firstly, it must be shown that the party has threatened or forced the victim to enter into a new contract with illegitimate pressure. It must be shown that there is a pressure or threat. The injured party is being coerced into complying with the party who exerted the pressure or else it is more likely to cause damage or danger to the injured party. The victim’s financial interests are at a risk if he refused to compromise or enter into a new contract with the other party. The force or threat must be identified first in order to succeed in a claim based on economic duress. Williams v Roffey Brothers [1991] 1 QB 1 In this case, the parties did not enter into a new contract because of any threat or pressure. The defendant had obtained a practical profit through the promise and this shows that he is not under threat or pressure when he promised to pay more. As such, there is no economic duress. This is because there must be a threat or pressure for the party to rely on this doctrine successfully. Once the existence of pressure or threat is being established, the next thing to do is to prove that the pressure or threat is illegitimate. In other words, the pressure or threat exerted by the party to the victim must be something that is not authorized by the law or something that is unlawful. However, it is unclear whether what actually amounts to illegitimate pressure or threat. Dayson J stated that ‘illegitimate pressure must be distinguished from the rough and tumble of the pressure of normal commercial bargaining’ DSND Subsea Ltd v Petroleum Geo Services ASA [2000] BLR 530. It is normal that there happens to be some pressures in business context when both parties are negotiating with each other. The doctrine of economic duress has acted as a guideline to limit the pressure exerts by the businessman so that fairness can be seen in both parties. This can limit the power of a party that has a stronger bargaining power from abusing his power. It is important to distinguish between a lawful and unlawful pressure because only an unlawful pressure is deemed to be one of the elements that must be proven in the doctrine of economic duress. For example, a threat in refusing to complete the task such as shipping goods which the party is contractually obliged to do so amounts to an illegitimate pressure because the party has no rights over the goods. Vantage Navigation Corporation v Suhail and Saud Bahwan Building Materials LLC, The Alev [1989] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 138 Next, it must be shown that it is the illegitimate pressure that causes the victim to enter into the contract. The illegitimate pressure must be the contributory factor of the victim’s action to enter into a new contract. The victim would not have entered into the contract if he is not threatened or forced by the illegitimate pressure. Thirdly, it must be shown that the victim has no practical choice other than to agree with the terms or conditions offered by the other party. This means that the party has left the victim with an only choice, that is, to agree with whatever they offer. As such, it renders the parties to enter into a new contract because the party who is exerting illegitimate pressure is trying to change the terms of the original contract. If the victim has been provided with an alternative choice, then he cannot fulfill this element of the doctrine. And so, he is not entitled to claim under economic duress. Here is an example that illustrates the situation where the victim has no practical choice other than to agree. Bamp;S Contractors v Victor Green Publications [1984] ICR 419 In this case, the plaintiff threatened the defendant to pay more or else he is not going to complete his work to erect the stand for exhibitions which is needed by the defendant. The defendant had no choice other to pay the plaintiff. This is because the defendant will have to bear with bad consequences if the plaintiff refused to work. The defendant then deducted the amount of money given to the plaintiff from the amount of money that the plaintiff is supposed to receive. The plaintiff claimed for the balance. Obviously, the plaintiff’s refusal to work had left the defendant with no alternative option other than to pay the plaintiff. It can be clearly seen that the defendant is under economic duress as he had no other choice than to pay the plaintiff. Thus, if the victim’s only choice is to comply with the other party because the illegitimate pressure by the party would bring bad consequences to the victim, then it amounts to economic duress provided other elements of economic duress has been established. Atlas Express Ltd v Kafco (Importers amp; Distributors) Ltd [1989] 1 All ER 641 amp; Adam Opel GmbH v Mitras Automotive Ltd [2007] EWHC 3205 (QB), [2008] BUS LR DIGEST D55. Does economic duress negate the existence of consent? Duress, whatever form it takes, is a coercion of the will so as to vitiate consent. [I]n a contractual situation commercial pressure is not enough. There must be present some factor which could in law be regarded as a coercion of [the] will [of the person alleging duress] so as to vitiate his [or her] consent    In determining whether there was a coercion of will such that there was no true consent, it is material to enquire whether the person alleged to have been coerced did or did not protest; whether, at the time he [or she] was allegedly coerced into making the contract, he [or she] did or did not have an alternative course open to him [or her] such as an adequate legal remedy; whether he [or she] was independently advised; and whether after entering th e contract he [or she] took steps to avoid it. All these matters are relevant in determining whether [the person alleging duress] acted voluntarily or not. Decision of Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in Pao On v Lau Yiu Long [1979] 3 All ER 65 at 78 Economic duress merely vitiates the consent but it does not negate the existence of the consent of the victim. See The Universe Sentinal Case. The victim still has the knowledge of what is he consenting to. He intentionally agrees to the coercion to enter into a new contract. Lord Goff in Dimskal Shipping Co. SA v International Transport Workers’ Federation, The Evia Luck [1991] 4 All ER 871 at p. 878. Although what the victim has agreed to is not what he actually intended to do so, he has no other choice than to agree with it. This however does not destroy the existence of consent. Consent simply means an agreement of someone to do something. The element of consent is still present. As such, one should not say that economic duress has the effect to negative the presence of consent. The House of Lord has been clear in saying that the defense of duress does not depend on upon the absence of a voluntary act (which means that it does not depend upon the absence of consent) but rather depends upon intentional submission in the face of no other practical alternative. Lynch v DPP for Northern Ireland [1975] AC 653 However, one can determine whether there was a coercion of will by four points. Firstly, did the victim protest when he was being coerced to enter into a new contract? If he did protest then it was not his true consent in agreeing to enter into a new contract. Secondly, after the victim has entered into a new contract caused by the exertion of illegitimate force, did he not have other option open to him; has he received any advice or did he take actions to avoid the coercion? If the answers are yes then one can say that he will was being coerced and it was not his true consent. If so, the doctrine of economic duress can be applied and the contract between the parties is voidable. Furthermore, there is one more requirement for establishing economic duress, that is, the victim must take action to protest at the time he was being coerced or shortly after he had been exerted with illegitimate pressure. There will be no remedy available for the victim if he fails to protest. In the case of The Atlantic Baron, although it was held that the defendant’s action amounted to economic duress, the failure of the victim to protest after such a long time had prevented him to claim for a remedy in duress. (North Ocean Shipping Co. Ltd v Hyundai Construction Co. Ltd [1979] QB 705) The contract in this case is however voidable as there was an economic duress but the victim cannot claim for remedy. This case has clearly shows that it is crucial to protest at the time or shortly thereafter in getting a remedy. The action of disagreeing or objecting is sufficient for the victim o prove that he had protested and thus entitling him for a remedy later on. Problems in Economic Duress As mentioned above, this doctrine is still undergoing a development. There are some problems in this doctrine and the court is trying to improve it. Firstly, the meaning of illegitimate pressure is unclear. The law is unclear whether what can amount to an illegitimate pressure. This is b ecause most of the contracts entered are due to some form of pressures. The distinction between lawful and illegitimate pressure must be made clearly. There should be a guideline whether what amounts to an illegitimate pressure. Secondly, the remedy for economic duress is inadequate. The victim is not allowed to claim for damages. The only remedy for this doctrine is rescission, that is, the parties are allowed to go back to the position before the contract was made. It is unfair to the victim as he has to bear with the losses. The court should have allowed the victim to claim for damages. However, the existence of this doctrine has acted fairly to the person who has been forced to enter into a contract. A contract can only be legally binding when both parties agree to the terms in the contract mutually. No one has the rights to force the other people to enter into a contract by using illegitimate pressure. It is very unfair to do so. Economic Duress in Malaysia In Malaysia, contracts can also be set aside if the parties are forced to enter in a contract. The parties must enter into an agreement by free consent and voluntarily so that the agreement could be legally enforceable. (Section 10 Contract Act 1950) The word ‘coercion’ is being used in Malaysia instead of the word ‘duress’ as in the UK under the common law. The definition of coercion is provided for under Section 15 of Contract Act 1950. Coercion is the committing or threatening to commit any act forbidden by the Penal Code, or the unlawful detaining or threatening to detain, any property, to the prejudice of any person whatever, with the intention of causing any person to enter into an agreement. According to Section 15 of Contract Act 1950, Ian Chin J stated that coercion can be committed by either the threatening of an act forbidden by the Penal Code and or unlawful of detention of any property or the threat to the prejudice of any person. Teck Guan Trading Sdn Bhd v Hydrotek Engineering (S) Sdn Bhd [1996] 4 MLJ 331; [1996] BLJ 163) The concept of coercion in s15 and the cocept of duress in the English common law are different in some ways. Firstly, under the s15 of the Contract Act 1950, the victim who is seeking to set aside the contract must show that the act committed is a threat to commit an act forbidden by the Penal Code. Furt hermore, the victim must also identify the section which the forbidden act falls in the Penal Code. A failure to establish that the act is forbidden under the Penal Code would prevent the court from deciding whether such an offence had been committed or not. This would result in no coercion and thus the victim could not rely on s15 of Contract Act 1950. The court held that there was no coercion of the will in the cases of Teck Guan Trading Sdn Bhd v Hydrotek Engineering (S) Sdn Bhd and Asbir, Hira Sigh amp;Co v Supramaniam a/l Pitchaimuthu amp; Ors [2000] 1 MLJ 83 because the parties failed to prove the elements under s15 of the Contract Act 1950. This is very different to the duress under the English common law. In order to rely on coercion successfully, the threat or the act committed must be of the offences under the Penal Code. S15 of the Contract Act 1950 has limited the scope of coercion to crimes under the Penal Code only. Any offences outside the Penal Code or which are merely civil wrongs do not amount to coercion. It makes coercion to be obsolete and it also does not meet the objective to the use of illegitimate pressure. Contract Law in Malaysia by Cheong May Fong 2010 pg 217. Secondly, the concept of coercion is wider as it covers the unlawful detention of property if compared to the concept of duress which recognizes only duress to person where threats to property seem to be insufficient to amount to duress in most of the cases. See Barton v Armstrong [1975] 2 WLR 1050, PC (Appeal from Australia). In addition, s15 provides that it does not matter whether or not the Penal Code is enforceable in the place where the coercion is exerted. See the illustration provides under s15 Although there are differences between the concept of coercion and the concept of duress, the judges in Malaysia still apply English cases regarding to economic duress. James Foong J in Mohd Fariq Subramaniam v Naza Motor Trading Sdn Bhd [1997] 3 CLJ Supp 249 referred to the criterion as stated in Pao On v Lau Yiu Long. See also Third World Development amp; Anor v Atang Latief amp; Anor (1990) 1 SCR 533 However, VC George J stated that economic duress under the English common law does not apply in Malaysia because economic duress in Malaysia are confined to situations stated under s14 and s15 only. Perlis Plantations Berhad v Mohammad Abdullah Ang [1988] 1 CLJ 670 In the English common law, it is very important for the victim to protest. It is also the same in the Malaysia law. Although both doctrines do not require the element of protest, it is essential to do so as it is more likely to show that the parties are under coercion or duress if they do protest. In Mohd Fariq Subramaniam v Naza Motor Trading Sdn Bhd, although it was proven that there was economic duress, the court held that there was no coercion because the plaintiff made no protest either before or after the contract was made. The English court would also come out with the same decision if the victim fails to protest. See North Ocean Shipping Co Ltd v Hyundai Construction Co Conclusion http://www. willans. co. uk/news/article/economic_duress_illegitimate_pressure_requirement_may_include_threats_of_la/ http://books. google. com. my/books? id=-sr5oUyjhVECamp;pg=PA166amp;lpg=PA166amp;dq=economic+duress+negate+the+existence+of+consentamp;source=blamp;ots=K07_YMpY2_amp;sig=qoDHDkDJ6DgqCXekjUk3Y-D_U1kamp;hl=enamp;sa=Xamp;ei=OkB5UJHHOszirAebq4GICQamp;ved=0CDgQ6AEwAw#v=onepageamp;q=economic%20duress%20negate%20the%20existence%20of%20consentamp;f=false

Monday, April 13, 2020

Introduction to Mass Communication Assignment Essay Example

Introduction to Mass Communication Assignment Essay Business idea supports this vision by offering a wide range of ell-designed, functional home furnishing products at prices so low that as many people as possible will be able to afford them. This advertisement is about the a kitchen activities organized by KEA Singapore, concept is Keep the relationship, KEA believe relationships are meant to last, that is why KEA kitchens are guaranteed for 25 years. KEA hope people can keep the relationship with their family members and friends. At the same time, people get the awards. Target Audience The advertisement targets people of two different class groups, the first rope are the urban middle class working adults, their age between 22-45 years old, they have independent economic capacity, who can accept the philosophy of design and way of life in KEA kitchen products. The second groups are the people who just bought the house, they do not have specific age level, maybe they are old people, and they will update their old kitchen to be new, because KEA has more than 3,000 design solutions. Message Through sentences on the advertisement, KEA use the sentences to introduce this activity, how to join this activity and awards. They use a very motional and skeptical sentence as begin, We believe relationships are meant to last, I think the KEA want to say, in todays society, everyone is busy, some people make a living, some people in order to work, they may begin to slowly forget the past friends or classmates or even a family members. Can your relationship stand the test of time? 25 is a special number in this advertisement and activity. We will write a custom essay sample on Introduction to Mass Communication Assignment specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Introduction to Mass Communication Assignment specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Introduction to Mass Communication Assignment specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer As we know, KEA kitchen has 43 years of history, 25 hours cook-off is represent 25 years, that is KEA kitchens are guaranteed for 25 years, the time also about the live of itched. At the same time, KEA wants to pass a message to public, KEA kitchens are guaranteed for 25 years, but for the people relationship, how many numbers of 25 years do you have? Meaning is we need to cherish our friendship. They show 18 kinds of innovative kitchen products around the sentence, meaning is telling the public this advertisement is about kitchen products. As we know, the most of KEA products are DID (Do it yourself) products, you need to assemble it by your self. Like this activity, cooking competition, also do it yourself, close to the philosophy of KEA. Placement of advertisement For this advertisement is on the Today newspaper, Today newspaper is a free newspaper to the public, KEA advertisement is on the page 7, right slide on the newspaper. I have 2 opinions about advertisement placed. Firstly, Peoples reading habits. Today newspaper as a free newspaper gives to the public in MR. station, people passing the table. Just take newspaper and continues to go. Or people are reading the newspaper while walking, they find the main news to read, maybe they do not read all the pages. So, in the iron 7 pages of Today newspaper, KEA has 3 pages advertisements, a cross- page advertisement (mm*mm) and a full-page advertisement (mm*mm), when the people open the newspaper, very strong visual feeling to the readers. Secondly, nature of the activity. For this advertisement, KEA only want to present an idea through this activity, they hope people to know this activity. At this page, they hope to have a strong effect of publicity. Effects of the messages on the target audience For this KEA advertisement, it adhere the Nordic simple, fresh, natural sensing style, advertisement direct tell the reader, and we have this activity. KEA spread by word of mouth advertising has affected a large part of the people, especially the young consumer grog AS. For the people, get the prize money is not the most important, KEA as a Europe company, they are more focus on humans emotion, people need communication, KEA organizes this event, hope to awaken emotional understanding of people. Encourage people communicate with old friends, they hope cooking with friends or family members together, find out the emotion between themselves. Cooking with friends or family members together in KEA kitchen, an activity becomes a memory, it is easier to be retained in the minds of the audience, which will help the audience with KEA Business, and remember KEA brand. So, it is not just make closer the relationship be;en friends, also make closer relationship between the friends and the KEA, when the people need any kitchen services or products, KEA is their first choice. Messages have been effectively communicated In my opinion, the idea of KEA advertisement has been effectively communicated to the target audience. Firstly, KEA target audience is close Today newspaper target audience, KEA focus on middle-class people and young adults, Today newspaper focus on all kinds of people, middle-class people and young dad Its are only a part of target audience of Today newspaper. Secondly, KEA target audience age level is similar with Today newspaper, most of Today newspaper readers are 20-50 years old, KEA kitchen product target group aged 25-45 years old. Therefore, in same age level, peoples idea also similar. Conclusion In conclusion, this advertisement passes the message to the public, clean argue audience group.

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Reality Tv Essays

Reality Tv Essays Reality Tv Essay Reality Tv Essay REALITY TELEVISION: Introduction: Reality television is a genre of television programming that presents purportedly unscripted dramatic or humorous situations, documents actual events, and usually features ordinary people or even professional actors. The genre has existed in some form or another since the early years of television. Programs in the reality television genre are commonly called reality shows and often are produced in series. Documentaries and nonfictional programming such as news and sports shows are usually not classified as reality shows. Reality television frequently portrays a modified and highly influenced form of reality, utilizing sensationalism to attract viewers and so to generate advertising profits. Subjects of a reality show may be given some rudimentary directions off-screen, but the point is to allow the performers to act and react as normally as possible. History: Precedents for television that portrayed people in unscripted situations began in the 1940s. Debuting in 1948, Allen Funts Candid Camera, broadcast unsuspecting ordinary people reacting to pranks. It has been called the granddaddy of the reality TV genre. Reality shows in India date back to the Channel Vs talent hunt for making of a musical band. The band of girls called Viva that emerged from this show enjoyed short-lived popularity but marked the beginning of reality shows in India. Superstar Amitabh Bachchans Kaun Banega Crorepati, which was the Indian version of Who wants to be a Millionaire, was a major hit with the audience in India. What followed next was a flood of reality shows, many of them being adaptations of the pre-existing western versions. Genres: Celeb-Reality: Reality shows with celebrities are a rage with the audience. Prank-Reality: Reality shows that involve pranks played on ordinary people and capturing their candid reaction. Game Shows: Reality shows that are based on games. Talent Hunts: Reality shows that are looking for talented people be it singers, dancers or even actors. Job-hunts: Shows that are synonymous with live on air interviews are listed under this category. Makeovers: Reality shows with make over stories. Be it a personal makeover or a home make over, these shows are very popular with the audience. Dating-Shows: Reality shows that gave a platform for dating men and women on air. Adventure/Fear based shows: A genre of TV shows that challenges the participants with difficult and weird tasks. Some reality shows provide artists a good platform to get noticed, some shows help people win money and fame but almost all of them keep the audience hooked on to the action and craving for more. Advantages: Instant fame: Fame seekers may claim that reality TVs biggest advantage comes in its unrivaled ability to produce more 15 minutes of fame stars than other TV genres. A reality show provides exposure that people could not get anywhere else, giving non-celebrities the potential to become household names and land opportunities that otherwise may evade them Achieving One’s Dream: Competitive reality programs offer another advantage to participants: the opportunity to follow dreams, land big breaks or win large amounts of cash. Viewers, in turn, may think they can accomplish the same and apply. Disadvantages: Lack of Privacy: Participants also have to deal with reality TV disadvantages. Applicants need to read the fine print in every legal document they sign, as a personal release form gives TV producers the rights to film them during every aspect of the program. If you apply to appear on a reality program, you have no grounds to complain about lack of privacy, or that you cannot control what ends up on TV. Every stipulation usually appears in personal and location release forms, as well as informed consent forms. Harmful Effects to Reputation: When participants surrender their rights to privacy, they may not consider reality TVs long-term effects, subjecting themselves to potentially humiliating events that harm their reputation. If participants engage in questionable behavior and it appears on television, it could impact their relationships with family and friends, not to mention employers and the law. Criticism: Reality television criticism ranges extensively. One such complaint is from professional actors and writers in the industry. As the surge in popularity from reality television has gained speed, this means more shows based on reality television and fewer programs based on the skills or talents of actors. As such, many actors and writers are complaining that the popularity of reality TV means less work for the thousands who have poured their life and soul into the industry for years prior. Reality television criticisms also hover around how well reality television actually portrays reality. On top of this, reality television shows usually portray people in a heightened state of reality to the point of it almost being fiction. Thus, the premise behind many shows has garnered criticisms based on how fabricated the portrayed reality actually is. Additionally, through editing film crews are able to portray a situation that might have been largely underplayed in real life for the purpose of portraying drama. Should children be allowed in reality shows: The reality TV shows offer a lot to the children- fame, money, opportunities to work with good organizations and lot more. But on the flip side, because of cut-throat competitions, failures and hard work sometimes celebrity children face the difficulty of coping up with studies and work together. They find it difficult to follow the hectic schedules on daily basis. Celebrity children don’t get time to play outdoor games, watch television, read books etc. They become so occupied with work and studies that they work day and night and leaves behind their childhood life. On the other side, those children don’t win the contests or shows lose their self confidence and often go into depression. Daily we read so many heart rending cases of children committing suicides, just because their parents didn’t allow them to participate in shows as it was affecting their studies. Most Popular Reality Shows on Indian Television: MTV Bakra Kaun Banega Crorepati Indian Idol Sa Re Ga Ma Big Boss The Great Indian Laughter Challenge Nach Baliye Jhalak Dikhlaja Dance India Dance India’s Got Talent MTV Roadies

Monday, February 24, 2020

Aviation Aircraft Investigation Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Aviation Aircraft Investigation - Research Paper Example Nevertheless, aviation accidents do occur. Between 1999 and 2008 there were 370 aviation accidents, resulting in 4,970 fatalities. Commercial passenger airlines are the least likely of all flights to be involved in an accident (www.1001crash.com). The causes for aviation accidents are varied, but can be categorized into three groups: the physical environment, mechanical failure and human error. Specific issues within each of these three groups are the root cause for all aviation-related accidents. Accidents caused by the physical environment occur from Mother Nature herself. Things such as lightening, wind, ice, rain, etc. are all physical causes. In these cases, it is important for accident investigators to rule out any human error when reacting to physical causes. An airplane sliding off of an icy runway would be one example of an accident caused purely by the physical environment. There is nothing a flight crew could do in this situation to avoid it. Mechanical failure is the next category of accidents. Examples of mechanical failure include complete engine shut down, rudder failure, wheel structure malfunction, etc. Again, there has to be care taken to ensure that human error is not at play in mechanical failure. Investigators have to research carefully to make certain that the failure was completely related to the physical part of the equipment and not the maintenance or lack of. Over the past 20 years, accidents relating to mechanical failures have been steadily declining when compared to other accident causes. Accidents caused by mechanical issues are easier to determine and fix as compared to human errors and the physical environment. When there is a mechanical error, it can be analyzed and improvements can be made in the mechanical structure to avoid the same problem happening again. This isn’t the case for human error (Wiegmann & Shappell, 1997). The remainder of this paper will focus